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                  學生論文|新冠肺炎背后的殺手
                  發布時間:2020-03-30 11:02:43 點擊次數:18191

                  小編說:

                  新冠病毒疫情自爆發以來,一直牽動著人們的心。我校高一生物競賽學生們在學習了人體免疫系統的知識后,在教練張立杰老師的指導下,通過查閱資料,整合知識,用活潑的方式和語言撰寫了一些科普文章,鞏固知識,提高能力,同時也宣傳了新冠病毒的知識。

                  今天為您推送的是柴卓爾同學撰寫的《新冠肺炎背后的殺手—細胞因子風暴》。

                  新冠肺炎背后的殺手—細胞因子風暴

                  The hidden killer behind the COVID-19—Cytokine Storm

                  作者/英文音頻:柴卓爾

                  學術指導教師:張立杰 英文指導教師:盧玉雯

                  近日,新冠疫情的爆發時刻牽動著人們的心。現在,經過全國人民的努力,新冠疫情已得到明顯控制。但就在不久前,新冠肺炎的確診人數和死亡人數突破了一個沉重的大關,超過了17年前的SARS。有專家指出,造成此次疫情重癥率和死亡率如此之高的一個重要原因,就是由嚴重感染導致的細胞因子風暴。那么這個令人頭疼的細胞因子風暴究竟是什么,它又是如何成為新冠肺炎背后的隱形殺手的呢?

                  Recently , the outbreak of the COVID-19 has been a great concern among us. Now, with the joint efforts of the people all over the country, the outbreak has been clearly brought under control. However, not long ago, the number of confirmed cases and death toll during the coronavirus epidemic has reached a record high, exceeding that of the SARS outbreak 17 years ago. Some experts pointed that one of the main causes of such high severity and mortality rate during this outbreak is the Cytokine Storm due to serious infections. What is this nerve-wracking Cytokine Storm? How can it become the hidden killer behind the COVID-19?

                  什么是細胞因子?

                  細胞因子是人體中正常生產的一種蛋白質,可以調節免疫系統,支配免疫細胞的數量以及去向。當病毒進入人體,人體內的安檢員-吞噬細胞會迅速將其識別,并將此信息傳達給T細胞,使之產生細胞因子。細胞因子的出現就好像拉響了警鈴,刺激特種戰士-B細胞進一步分裂和分化。大部分B細胞分化成可以產生大量抗體的漿細胞,立即投入戰斗,小部分會分化成“會記仇”的記憶細胞,當機體再次遭到此種病毒入侵時,它可以幫助機體更快速地反應并行動起來。

                  細胞因子可以分為兩大類,第一類是促炎癥細胞因子,它們可以激活多種免疫細胞,促進炎癥發生。例如,病毒、細菌侵入的地方會感到疼痛、紅腫,嚴重一些的患者會發燒無力,這些都是細胞因子調控免疫活動所致。第二類是抗炎癥細胞因子,它們可以降低炎癥的作用。這兩類細胞因子相互作用,共同調控免疫系統的平衡。

                  Cytokines are tiny protein molecules that adjust the immune system. They also control the quantity and destinations of the immune cells. When a kind of virus invades into our body, phagocyte, the “inspector”, will quickly detect it and deliver this message to T cells, which produces cytokine, a kind of “helper T cell”. This little “helper” stimulates B cells for further fission and differentiation. Most B cells become plasma cells that can produce a great quantity of antibodies, which can be put into use at once. A small amount of B cells will become memory cells. When the same intruder invades again, they can help the immune system to activate much faster.

                  Just like everything in the body, cytokines can be good or bad. There are two types of cytokines , one is pro-inflammatory. They can activate various kinds of immune cells, and start the inflammation. For instance, pain and swelling may appear where virus or bacteria invade, and in more severe cases fever and weakness are caused. All these show the regulation of immunization activities by cytokines. Anti-inflammatory ,the other type of the cytokines, can reduce the inflammation reactions. These two kinds of cytokines work together to keep the balance of the immune system.

                  細胞因子風暴是什么?

                  細胞因子風暴是指由于機體產生了大量促炎癥細胞因子而引發的過度免疫反應。

                  既然,人體受到感染時,免疫系統被細胞因子激活、增強,幫助我們抵抗感染,是一件好事,那么為什么還會有人死于細胞因子風暴呢?這是因為當免疫系統因嚴重感染被過度激活時,超量的細胞因子就會被制造出來,它們不再局限在身體的某個部位,而是造成全身炎癥,就好像一場失去控制的風暴。

                  The Cytokine Storm is a kind of overactive immune reaction, caused by the over production of the pro-inflammatory.

                  When the body is infected, immune cells will be activated and strengthened by the cytokines, helping us fight against the inflammation, which is of benefit to human. If so, why do someone still die from Cytokine Storm? That is because when the immune system is seriously infected, pro-inflammatory will be overproduced , causing the inflammation of the whole body to occur ,thus making it a storm out of control.

                  細胞因子風暴的后果

                  細胞因子風暴會造成免疫細胞的過度損傷,也會使過多的免疫細胞和組織液在肺部積聚,阻塞空氣進出,同時降低紅細胞吸收氧氣的能力,不僅導致肺部的損害,還會引起腎臟、肝臟、心肌等的損害。甚至并發急性呼吸窘迫綜合征和多器官衰竭,造成病人死亡。這就是為什么細胞因子風暴會成為新冠肺炎背后的隱形殺手。

                  Cytokine will cause excessive damage to immune cells , as well as the accumulation of immune cells and tissue fluids in lungs, blocking the air flow completely. Red blood cells can no longer properly absorb oxygen. It not only causes damage to lungs, but also to kidneys, liver and myocardium. What’s worse, it might cause the ARDS(Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome) and Multiple System Organ Failure at the same time. That is why the Cytokine Storm is the hidden killer behind the COVID-19.

                  很多人認為在一次流感或肺炎的爆發中,外界的微生物是他們最大的敵人,但實際上,由于細胞因子風暴的存在,人體自身的免疫系統可能會更具殺傷力。

                  幸運的是,醫學研究者們已經找到了細胞因子風暴反應的原因和反應階段,并正在研究減弱過度活躍的免疫反應的方法。期待在未來,應對細胞因子風暴,我們可以有更好的準備和選擇。

                  People often think of external microbes as their worst enemy during an outbreak of influenza or pneumonia. But in fact, because of the existence of the cytokine, the body’s own immune system is potentially more lethal.

                  Fortunately, medical researchers have identified the causes and stages of the reaction and are working on treatments to weaken an overactive immune response. It is strongly hoped that in the future, we will make better preparation and have more choices dealing with the preparations Storm.

                  編輯/審核:梁健


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